There are two ways to extract minerals: underground or open.
The underground method is carried out by mines or adits.
The mine is a vertical complex mining facility. The depths of the vertical shafts of mines during mining often reach several hundred meters. The deepest mine in the world was built in South Africa at the unique Witwatersrand gold mine. The depth of the mine is approaching 2.5 kilometers. In Central Siberia, the depths of mines at the Soviet gold ore and Abakan iron ore deposits are significantly greater than half a kilometer depth. Usually mines are a combination of vertical and horizontal underground workings creating a mine field.
Mine adits are used in cases where the mineral is located in a mountainous terrain (the so-called “adit relief”). On the slope of the mountain passes a horizontal mine working (adit) through which ore is extracted from the bowels. Usually the main shaft of the adit is accompanied by a system of additional horizontal workings forming a complex network through which the ore is delivered to the surface.
Quarry is an open-pit mining enterprise. In the practice of work, a set of workings in the earth’s crust is usually created, formed during open-cast mining.
When mining coal for open pits, the term “cut” or trench is used. The quarry has the shape of a deep bowl, cuts or trenches are linear. The term “quarry field” is often used – this is part of the land allotment that includes the quarry itself, plots reserved for the placement of “empty” rocks (dumps), industrial sites and other industrial premises. The depth of modern quarries reaches the first hundreds of meters and covers vast areas of tens of square kilometers. For example, the design depth of the quarry at the Sorsky copper-molybdenum deposit is 500 meters.