KOL ORE DISTRICT – located in the northwest of the European part of the CCCP, beyond the Arctic Circle as part of the Murmansk Region of the RSFSR. Consists of mainland and peninsular (Kola Peninsula) parts. The total area of 114, 9 thousand km2. The relief of the western part of the region is medium- and low-mountainous, and the eastern one is flat, flat, or steep. Several mountain ranges (“tundra”) – Khibiny, Lovozersky, Monchetundra, Volchye, Salnoye, Roslim and other tundra-Keiva plateau (about 400 m). The highest are the city of Khibiny with the peak of Chasnachorr up to 1191 m high. The mountains bear traces of glacial processing (circuses, trogs, lamb foreheads). The nature of the mountain tundra is flat, table-top peaks and steep slopes. In the Kola ore district, more than 111 thousand lakes. The largest is Imandra (an area of more than 800 km2, depth up to 67 m) – the natural border of the mainland and peninsular part of the region. In the center of the district there is a large swampy lowland along which the largest river, the Ponoi, flows. Many small rivers with an abundance of rapids and waterfalls. The area belongs to the Atlantic-Arctic zone of temperate climate, which is greatly influenced by the warm Gulf Stream. The absolute minimum temperature (-40 ° C) in the center of the region, from -35 to -40 ° C on the coast – the absolute maximum (30 ° C) – throughout the area. The average January temperatures are -13 ° C (central region), from -9 to -11 ° C (on the coasts) – July 14 ° C (central region) and 9 ° -11 ° C (on the coasts). The monsoon nature of the winds prevails.
Geological structure and minerals. The Kola ore district is located in the north-eastern part of the Baltic Shield, which is part of the East European platform. It is composed of metamorphosed sedimentary and magmatic formations of Archean and Proterozoic. On the northern outskirts of the Kola Peninsula, there are fragments of a branch of the Timan-Kanin Baikalids, folded by Riphean; in the east, undeployed Paleozoic deposits are exposed. Geotectonic regions and structural-facies zones are delimited by zones of deep faults transformed into overthrusts. Tectonic movements created a heterogeneous block structure of the Kola ore district.
The following stages are distinguished in the history of the geological development of the Kola ore district. The oldest stage (early Archean) is represented by a heterogeneous granodiorite-tonalite-gneiss complex.