Minerals Map of Russia

Fig. 2.25

Mineral resources – a set of geological reserves of mineral raw materials in the bowels of a region, country, continent, and the world as a whole, calculated in relation to existing conditions for minerals taking into account scientific and technological progress (depth of development, enrichment efficiency, etc.).

Minerals are mineral formations of the earth’s crust, the chemical composition and physical properties of which allow their use in the economy. The accumulation of minerals, by the quantity, quality and conditions of occurrence suitable for use, is called a deposit, and their continuous distribution over a large area forms a pool.

The distribution of minerals throughout the country is explained by the peculiarities of the geological structure of individual regions. In turn, the geological structure depends on tectonic (that is, occurring in the earth’s crust) processes developing in various geological eras.

The territory of the country was formed from platforms and folding belts. Platforms are the most stable areas of the lithosphere. The foundation (the lower tier of the platform) is formed by strongly crushed metamorphosed rocks. A sedimentary cover of horizontally occurring rocks is formed on the foundation. Depending on the time of foundation foundation formation, the platforms are divided into ancient (East European, Siberian) and young (West Siberian). These three platforms, expressed in the relief by the plains, occupy the bulk of the territory of Russia. In some places, the foundation of the platforms comes to the surface. These areas are called shields. There are Baltic and Ukrainian shields on the East European platform, and Aldan and Anabar on the Siberian one.

Folded belts arising in the most mobile parts of the earth’s crust are metamorphosed rocks crumpled into folds. In this case, the folds can be bent down (syncline) or up (anticline).

igneous – formed during solidification and crystallization of magma at a certain depth or on the surface – sedimentary – arising from the deposition of debris of various rocks and the remains of organisms on the land and on the ocean floor – metamorphic – altered by high temperatures, high pressure, the influence of solutions and gases – metasomatic – arising in the process of substitution of some minerals with others with a significant change in their chemical composition.

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