Development of Solid Mineral Deposits

MINING
A special place is occupied by the development of deposits of the oceans and the extraction of minerals from seawater (see Underwater mining).

In the early 70’s. 20 century More than 11 billion tons of solid minerals, about 3 billion tons of oil and about 1000 billion 3 of natural gas were extracted annually in the world. The growth of the global mining industry is at least 4–5% per year — approximately every 15–18 years, the volume of mining doubles. In value terms, the development of energy raw materials accounts for 72%, ores – 21%, non-metallic minerals – 7%

About 60% of metallic ores, 85% of non-metallic ores, 100% of non-metallic minerals and about 35% of coal are mined in an open way in the world. The underground development method is used for minerals occurring at great depths.

Characteristic features of the development of solid minerals: the construction of high-performance mining enterprises (quarries with an annual capacity of tens of millions of tons of minerals, mines and mines – several million tons) – development of deposits with a low content of useful component – integrated use of minerals in the development of deposits (for example, use of overburden for the construction industry) – transition to great depths (for quarries – hundreds of meters, for mines – several km) – implementation (based on com integrated polices mechanization and automation) of cyclic-flow and flow diagrams of rabot- improving production conditions and technology security- reclamation of land and mineral resources, disturbed by mining operations. In the development of oil and gas fields, new methods of influencing productive formations are introduced to more fully extract minerals from the bowels, and automated production systems.

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