Open development of mineral deposits (a. Surface mining, opencast mining, open pit mining, quarry mining – n. Tagebau – exploitation des gisements a ciel ouvert, exploitation des gisements en decoverver- and. Explotacion de yacimientos a cielo abierto expl depositos a cielo abierto, explotacion de yacimientos de superficie a cielo abierto) – extraction of minerals from the surface of the Earth using open pit mines (see Quarry). The main opencast mining operations are capital trenches providing access to mineral resources and split trenches preparing the quarry field for overburden and mining operations.
Open-pit mining due to a high degree of extraction of minerals from the bowels of the earth, the ability to achieve greater production capacity of the enterprise, increase labor productivity (5-8 times), reduce production costs (2-4 times), improve working conditions, was given priority in CCCP (by compared with mine mining) development. Open-pit mining of deposits provides over 75% of the production of mineral raw materials and its specific gravity is steadily growing (Table 1). Open field development allows us to create powerful complexes in CCCP for the extraction, processing and consumption of mineral raw materials (see the Territorial Production Complex) with a high concentration of production, developed transport communications, minimal transportation distances and low production costs. The main opencast mining areas of coal deposits are North Kazakhstan (the Ekibastuz coal deposit, the Turgaysky and Maykubensky brown coal basins, the Yubileiny brown coal deposit), the Kuznetsk coal basin, the Kansk-Achinsky brown coal basin, the Dnieper coal basin-iron ore – Ural (Kachkar dr. ), Ukraine (Kryvyi Rih basin, Kerch basin, Poltava GOK), Kazakhstan (Sokolovsko-Sarbaisky GOK, Lisakovsky GOK, Kacharsky GOK), Central Russia (Mikhailovsky, Lebedinsky, Stoilensky GOK), the Kola Peninsula (Olenegorsk, Kovdor GOK) – non-ferrous metal ores – the Urals (Sibaysky, Gaysky, Uchalinsky ore quarries), Siberia and the Far East (Norilsk MMC, Sorsky opencast mine), Kazakhstan (Kounradsky, Nikolaev, Zyryustovsky, Zyryustovsky Belovsky quarry), the Caucasus (Tyrnyauz, Kajaran quarries), Kola Peninsula (Pechenganickel quarries) – manganese ores – Ukraine (Nikopol basin) – mining and chemical raw materials – Kola Peninsula (quarries of the Apatit plant), Kazakhstan (Karatau), Baltic States (mine Toolse), Central Asia, Moscow, Kirov and Lviv regions.