There are various ways to extract minerals.
Mineral resources that are located on the surface of the earth’s crust or lie shallow in the bowels are mined open-pit. An open-pit mining method is the process of creating pits in a field, called open pits or quarries. The sizes of such sections and quarries depend on the vastness of the deposit and the depth of mineral deposits. Using the open method, the raw materials used for construction are mainly mined: limestone, sand, chalk and the like. Peat, some types of coal, as well as iron and copper ores are also mined open-pit.
Solid minerals, which occur at great depths in the bowels of the earth, are mined using the construction of underground mines. Most often, coal is mined in this way. The mine method of mining is considered the most dangerous for the lives of employees of such enterprises.
Liquid and gaseous minerals are extracted from the earth by drilling special wells, from where minerals come to the surface through pipes. Additional methods are used to extract minerals of a certain type. For example, to extract salt, it is dissolved underground by supplying water to the well. And such raw materials as sulfur are pre-melted by the action of hot steam supplied through the well.
Even in the extraction of some non-ferrous metals, water is used in mining, more precisely, impurities from groundwater. This is how lithium is mined – it is found in groundwater, where it is dissolved and found in a mineral ode in the form of compounds. You can also find underground water deposits from which copper is deposited. A striking example is the Degtyarsky mine in the Urals. Copper dissolves in groundwater under the action of bacteria that can dissolve copper and sulfur compounds, turning them into copper sulfate.
Such raw materials as germanium, according to many experts, are profitable to extract from the processing of thermal power plants, more precisely from their ashes.