Natural substances and types of energy that serve as the means of subsistence of human society and used in the economy are referred to as
One of the varieties of natural resources is mineral resources.
Mineral resources are rocks and minerals that are used or can be used in the national economy: for energy, in the form of raw materials, materials, etc. Mineral resources serve as the mineral resource base of the country’s economy. Currently, the economy uses more than 200 types of mineral resources.
Often a synonym for mineral resources is the term “minerals.”
There are several classifications of mineral resources.
Based on the physical properties, solid (various ores, coal, marble, granite, salts) mineral resources, liquid (oil, mineral water) and gaseous (combustible gases, helium, methane) are isolated.
By origin, mineral resources are divided into sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic.
Based on the scope of use of mineral resources, they distinguish between combustible (coal, peat, oil, natural gas, oil shale), ore (rock ores, including metallic useful components and non-metallic (graphite, asbestos) and non-metallic (or non-metallic, non-combustible: sand, clay , limestone, apatite, sulfur, potassium salts.) A separate group are precious and ornamental stones.
The distribution of mineral resources on our planet is subject to geological patterns (table. 1).
Mineral resources of sedimentary origin are most typical for platforms where they are found in the thickness of the sedimentary cover, as well as in foothill and marginal troughs.
Magmatic mineral resources are confined to folded regions and places of exit to the surface (or close to the surface) of the crystalline basement of ancient platforms. This is explained by the following. Ores were formed mainly from magma and emitted from non-hot aqueous solutions. Usually, magma rises during active tectonic movements; therefore, ore minerals are associated with folded regions. On the platform plains, they are confined to the foundation, therefore, they can be found in those parts of the platform where the sedimentary cover thickness is small and the foundation fits close to the surface or on shields.
Minerals on the map of Russia
Table 1. Distribution of deposits of main minerals on continents and parts of the world
Continents and parts of the world
Floor and metals