Venezuela has enormous natural resources, among which fossil fuels and forests are especially noted.
Relief of Venezuela. The Andes mountain ranges in the west, the Orinoksk plain in the center, and the Guiana Plateau in the east stand out in the country’s relief. In the west, the Orinoco plain (Llanos Orinoco) is a flat alluvial lowland with a height of 40-150 m, in the east – a plain with a wide Delta Orinoco delta raised to 350 m. The ridges of the Andes surrounding the deep tectonic basin of the lowland and Lake. Maracaibo, connected by a strait (2-4 m deep and 450 km long) with the Venezuelan Gulf. In the north of the country stretches the Caribbean Andes (Naiugust, 2765 m), this area is seismically dangerous.
The climate of Venezuela. The subequatorial special climate prevails in the country, with rainy summers and dry winters, in the southwest it is equatorial, constantly humid. The average monthly temperature reaches from +25 ° С to +29 ° С, precipitation falls from 280 mm in the northwest to 2000-3000 mm on the northern slopes of the Andean ranges. The dry season lasts from December to April.
Rivers and lakes of Venezuela. The river network of the country is dense and mainly belongs to the Orinoco river basin. The rivers are mostly rapids and form many large waterfalls (including the world’s highest angel, fall height 1054 m). Numerous tributaries of Orinoco are navigable. The Casikyare River Channel connects Orinoco with large Brazilian rivers. The lake-lagoon of Maracaibo is the largest in the country. Its area becomes 16.3 thousand km2, depth – up to 250 m.
Mineral resources of Venezuela. Nadra of Venezuela is rich in oil and natural gas (3,648 billion m3), iron and nickel ores, are manganese and tungsten ores, gold, diamonds, bauxite, sulfur, asbestos and others. By oil reserves (10, 8 billion tons) Venezuela ranks first in Latin America and eighth in the world (Lake Maracaibo, Gulf of Venezuela, the lower reaches of the Orinoco), and iron ore reserves are the second in the region.